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The Importance of Thermal comfort in Architectural Buildings Green Building Design

According to Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in his book entitled “de architectura” written in 15 BC. “A building architecture must be supported by three basic qualities: quality firmitas (strength, endurance), quality utiiitas (functional) and venusitas quality (beauty)”.


To achieve the quality or functional utility room which must meet the basic demands of comfort. Comfort to be met by a space is the comfort of motion (ergonomics, circulation), the comfort of air (temperature, humidity, air circulation, pollution levels), the eyes and ears sensory comfort (lighting, acoustics).



The relationship between the room function and Thermal Comfort

Space in the building as a form of product design architecture has several functions. The first function is as a protector (shelter). The second function as a container to perform activities such as work, study, exercise of sport, entertainment, gathering, resting and others. The third function is a function of social and cultural (Mark & Morris, 1980)

In relation to the protective function of a room as thermally should be able to protect its occupants from the weather that is too cold or too hot can cause residents fell ill or died. In the context of the room as a place to do activities required thermal conditions most convenient for these activities so that activities can be carried out optimally.


Thermal Comfort improve Quality of Life and Health

Several studies prove that thermal comfort can improve the quality of life and human health.



Intellectual Performance, Physical and Sense Perception someone will reach the best condition when a man is in a comfortable condition thermal (Fanger, 1982). This means that activities related to such intellectual learning, work that requires concentration and a drain of mind, creative work and others – others may do well if the person in a comfortable thermal conditions. Room with good thermal comfort can improve the quality-related activities such as physical exercise. Activities related to sensory perception eyes and ears like a house of worship, concert hall, cinema and other art performances very well require appropriate thermal comfort conditions.

According to research conducted by Altman and Stokol in 1987 the factory or office worker productivity are doing work that repeatedly cendurung decline if performed in a room with temperature and humidity levels are high. Although known ties between the productivity of workers with thermal comfort, but the building owners tend to reduce the cost of investment to achieve thermal comfort. Yet according to Edward in 1989 investment and operating costs to achieve thermal comfort is much cheaper than the cost of employee salaries and business development.

The temperature of the “core” of the human body if it exceeds 37 degrees Celsius can lead to stroke, heat exhaustion or lead to the death (Evan & Cohen, 1987). When the human body is in the room with a temperature above 40 degrees Celsius can increase body temperature. Increasing the body temperature accompanied by increased heart rate. Heart rate increased due to increased body temperature can lead to stroke. Besides the room temperature heat can cause the body tired and dehydrated. In extreme conditions and if the conditions are unfavorable body it can cause death.


Design strategies to achieve Thermal Comfort

Thermal comfort can be achieved with the strategy of building a natural design and mechanical design strategy.

Natural design strategy can optimize the thermal comfort while lowering energy use to control the room temperature. Natural Design Strategy are:

1. Building Orientation
2. Shelter
3. Natural Ventilation
4. Humidity or Air Drying
5. Type of construction
6. Thermal properties of the building

Mechanical Design strategies to achieve thermal comfort are:

1. Drying and dampening air
2. Heating or cooling

Natural Thermal Comfort Design Strategies For Green Building Design

Thinking Green Building Design started since the onset of global concern over the depletion of fossil energy in the world around 1960. Rachel Carson in her book Silent Spring in 1962 is considered a book that initiated the concept of Green Building Design.
Research conducted by Clement and Croome showed a unique correlation between the achievement of thermal comfort experienced by the investment costs. As Green Building designer must find common ground between long-term investments with the performance of the building to achieve maximum ROI.

ALTA Integra is a technical consulting company specializing in the field of Thermal Comfort Natural and Green Building Design.



If you experience problems that disrupt the activities Thermal Comfort or you want to create a new building design with good comfort Natural Thermal please contact ALTA Integra.

Herwin Gunawan
ALTA Integra


For consultation thermal comfort in buildings Architecture, Please fill out the following form or call us at:

ALTA Integra

Jl. Hayam Wuruk No. 2 R – S
Jakarta Pusat, 10210
Telp: 021 3513351
Fax: 021 3458143

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